There doesn’t appear to be any real definition of square dancing. In general, a square dance is formed by four couples who start the dance in a roughly square shape, all facing each other, but there’s plenty of variety within square dancing.
Although Modern Western square dance is probably the most popular type in the United States, there are a great many other versions throughout the world, such as Appalachian style old time square dance or the English Country Dance. The great thing about square dancing is that anyone can do it, because each step is announced by the caller.
“You turned my wailing into dancing;
you removed my sackcloth and clothed me with joy,
that my heart may sing to you and not be silent.
O Lord my God, I will give you thanks forever.”